Jachim Coudenys’ talk really delivered on its title. He started by laying out some of the groundworks. An important aspect is that PHP-FPM uses a master process which spawns child processes. These child processes can all access the master’s shared memory.
Then the first part: Realpath Cache. This cache is filled whenever a path is requested in PHP. It explodes a path on the directory separator (‘/’) and then caches all the possible paths.
$presentation = file_get_contents( __DIR__ . '/../ffi.php' ); $presentation2 = file_get_contents( dirname(__DIR__) . '/ffi.php' ); $filesize = filesize( __DIR__ . '/../est.txt' ); print_r(realpath_cache_get());
[/home/jachim/demo] => Array ( [key] => 1.6354972010384E+19 [is_dir] => 1 [realpath] => /home/jachim/demo [expires] => 1579859105 ) [/home] => Array ( [key] => 4353355791257440477 [is_dir] => 1 [realpath] => /home [expires] => 1579859105 ) [/home/jachim] => Array ( [key] => 5522554812971572568 [is_dir] => 1 [realpath] => /home/jachim [expires] => 1579859105 ) [/home/jachim/demo /../ffi.php] => Array ( [key] => 1.6164035761241E+19 [is_dir] => [realpath] => /home/jachim/ffi.php [expires] => 1579859105 ) [/home/jachim/ffi.php] => Array ( [key] => 5100116734180765326 [is_dir] => [realpath] => /home/jachim/ffi.php [expires] => 1579859105 ) [/home/jachim/demo/realpath.php] => Array ( [key] => 1.8190176096283E+19 [is_dir] => [realpath] => /home/jachim/demo/realpath.php [expires] => 1579859105 )
Obviously, subsequent calls resolve faster, but this mechanism doesn’t use shared memory. An performance boost can be achieved by tweaking the cache size and the entries TTL.
Next up, OPCache: opcodes are cached since PHP 5.5 by default. Each time a request is handled by PHP, it compiles the code into opcodes (short for operation codes). A cool tool Jachim showed, was the Vulcan Logic Dumper which visualizes these opcodes. Since these opcodes never change (in production), it makes sense to add some cache. There were several tools available, but it was the Zend Optimizer, which was donated by Zend and included in PHP 5.5, ànd it has become better with each release. This cache is in the shared memory and thus used by each child of the master FPM process.
A few important aspects:
- Shared memory: as explained above, it is shared between the child processes, but this also means that it is only useful when there are child processes, so perhaps you should think about some workarounds to keep the master processes running, and thus keeping the cache warm (although there are other OPCaching priming tricks, like saving the opcodes to file and loading those in memory when spinning up the master process, FPM pools etc.).
- Wasted memory: OPCache doesn’t do “defragmentation”. This means that if some cache entries get invalidated, the memory is marked as wasted, but it is not released. New entries are always appended. This may lead to suboptimal usage of the available memory.
There are several options to tweak the config:
- It’s off by default for CLI commands, since it doesn’t make sense to cache it since the process is immediately terminated. However, in some cases (think daemons) just turning it on will already give you a better performance.
- Another obvious win is to increase the allowed memory usage, but it depends on what the stats (opcache_get_status()) tell you about the current cache usage.
- Tweaking when the cache gets invalidated is also an option. Every revalidate_freq seconds, OPCache will check for updated scripts. You can increase this value or disable the validate_timestamps setting altogether, meaning the cache is valid until eternity (and manual invalidation is required).
- The opcache.max_wasted_percentage is the threshold to determine when a restart should occur to free up (wasted) memory.
Jachim concluded that your OPCache’s hit rate should always be at least above 90%, but actually in most cases you should see a hit rate of 99%. The wasted memory should ideally be zero, and you should never have a full cache. A cool visualisation tool is OPcache Status.
The final part, Preloading: OPCache on steroids. It’s part of OPCache since PHP 7.4, and basically it means that some of your function and classes can be loaded when PHP starts, so before it accepts any requests. Actually, your functions becomes part of the PHP engine, just like for example strlen(). There’s one pitfall: your classes should be loaded “in order”, i.e. if your class needs another class it should already be known.
Even though this might seem like devops-matter, and it is indeed very low level, but it sure is interesting to know how this all works, and it definitely made our team think again about some of our hosting configurations.